From Civil Engineer to Banker. No. From ordinary Civil Engineer to Civil Engineer with banking skills😁

Please note I do not represent the Bank, and the views are entirely my own.

I’ve had (and been asked) so many questions since I started working at the Bank. And no I do not have access to cash, nor do I have access to a car loan 😂.

  1. What does the Bank do?

The Infrastructure Development Bank of Zimbabwe (IDBZ) is a development finance institution. Simply put, the Bank promotes economic development through investment in infrastructure. That means from project inception, to bankability and financing, to design, build, and operation, the Bank is involved. The current sectors are energy, transport, water and sanitation, information communication technology (ICT) and housing.

2. What do I do at the Bank?

As in aside from writing endless minutes, processing never-ending payments and running countless errands?🤔

Well I help with developing projects from inception right up until implementation, on what we call the technical side. Because we are an infrastructure bank, our projects are heavily civil engineering based projects. We do not do any actual design of say water reticulation systems nor geotechnical investigations. It’s sort of high level decision making. For example what to use a certain piece of land for, including estimating costs and assessing financial viability( at a very basic level) as well as project management and contract handling to name a few.

3. How am I finding it?

Intriguing, eye opening. Wondering why it’s taken as long to get as many civil engineers becoming a part of the Bank 😅.

4. Do I see myself continuing with project financing in the future?

Haha. I do not have a choice now. I’m sold. The fun part is that it’s not the conventional civil engineering we’re used to. It requires a little more creativity, thought, people management, multi tasking skills and articulation in both written and spoken word.

#civilengineer #civilengineering #civilengineeringstudent #civilengineeringzw #projectfinance #infrastructure #infrastructurefinance #projectmanagement

Infrastructure-financing.jpg
Image taken from Premium Times Nigeria

What to do: Design of Water and sewer for a residential area

Guest blogger: Craig Tanyanyiwa

When @Michelle Maphosa asked me to document a project I had done while I was an intern and after graduation as part of an initiative to help out undergrads that will possibly face the challenges we faced I gladly accepted the challenge. I refer to it as a challenge because I had to use the appropriate nomenclature and simplify my work, which is something I have been working on, post graduation.

I have decided to pick one particular project that holds a special place in my engineering path; the designing for a new land development.

During my internship I was assigned to the projects department for 5 months, this department was in charge of carrying out land development designs for the organisation. These included sewer, and water reticulation designs and the road designs.

My supervisor informed me that we would have to produce these for a new low density suburb. This was the main project I carried out while at projects division. The project involved the design of water and sewer reticulation and road design from preliminary stage up to handover of drawings.

Preliminary Design

With the help of supervisor, I had to start with preliminary design of sewer and water. Initially I had to use Google Earth software to get a rough idea of the terrain, while conducting this exercise I learnt how this software can also give a section of an area which shows the natural gradient of the land at time of mapping. With the direction of flow established, the reticulation system could be plotted to provide a path which would lead to an outfall.

Side bar: Use of Google Earth™ in Civil and Water Engineering

Google Earth is a virtual globe, map and geographical information program that was originally called Earth Viewer 3D created by Keyhole Inc., a Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) funded company acquired by Google in 2004. It maps the Earth by the superimposition of images obtained from satellite imagery, aerial photography and geographic information system (GIS) onto a 3D globe. It was originally available with three different licenses, but has since been reduced to just two: Google Earth (a free version with limited function) and Google Earth Pro, which is now free (it previously cost $399 a year) and is intended for commercial use.

With 3D imagery the maps have values with are exact to -0.111% and because of this accuracy the data can be used for preliminary analysis.

In Civil Engineering design it is important to have a good preliminary design as it makes work a bit easier. Google Earth assists in providing imagery for a location to be worked on even from miles away. Moreover, an Engineer can take advantage of its ability to create paths, which can be used to obtain longitudinal sections of the terrain. While these sections are estimates they give a generally picture of how the terrain looks like, especially if a topographical survey has not been done yet. In Essence Google Earth is a good recognisance tool and time saver for engineers. However, it should not replace physical recognisance visits, as there are some features even the best software’s cannot view.

With the general route in place, I had to identify manhole positions using guidelines from the Council Sanitation manual design procedures. The main guideline was the distance between manholes which is to be not more the 70m for maintenance. I then had to then design the water reticulation layout and try to make sure all houses were serviced while reducing the need for long connections (sewer connections which have to cross a road).

Primary Design

With the preliminary design ready, my supervisor and I had to then go on site to survey the area and get actual ground levels using a dumpy level. On the first day the outfall sewer was surveyed and using existing benchmarks the actual ground level for reference manhole was found. This level was to be used to reduce the rest of the area. This was done in the following weeks with preliminary design having to be altered from time to time due to unforeseen rapid adulations of the land which would not allow a non-pumped sewer system.

Back in the office I had to reduce all levels taken and establish the ground levels for all manhole positions. Then with the depth of the existing manhole known, and by taking levels for the top of manhole and in the pipe inside the manhole, an invert level was established. The gradient for the outfall system was set at recommended 1:100 for a 160mm PVC pipe. Through calculations an invert level for the reference manhole WTF 09 was found.

The Formulae for obtaining Invert Level is: 𝐼𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 (𝐼𝑉𝐿) =𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑣𝑖𝑜𝑢𝑠 𝑖𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 ± 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑔𝑒𝐺𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡

The rest of the manhole invert levels for the area were obtained graphically i.e. the whole network was plotted on a graph paper and invert levels were obtained by first stating a required depth for a starter manhole then working backwards. In this case the ground was uneven so a gradient of 1:200 was chosen and a different pipe size of 200mm was used as it is the recommended (SALA design manual) size for that gradient. With invert and ground levels known the work was then transferred to AutoCAD™ 2016 and vertical sections of the sewer reticulation system were produced.

Next I had to design the water reticulation, and this entailed using the Hazen Williams equation to obtain the head in the system. The per capita demands and fire demand were obtained from a manual that was compiled by one of the engineers at the organization. This manual is free to all that may need to use it. With this, I was able to get the appropriate pipe size of 90mm and the pressure head from the calculations was used to get the pipe class. The calculations for this exercise had to be shown and verified by a colleague and my supervisor. After the design was completed, I was tasked to produce a bill of quantities for the materials required. This BOQ did not contain labor costs and it would be tendered out. I was still tasked to find out the going rate so as to compare with bid documents.

The drawings were then printed on A0 and A1 sheets for submission and checking.

It goes without saying that I am deeply grateful to my supervisor as she gave me the opportunity to make decisions, make mistakes and learn from them. For teaching me how to teach others, i.e. my fellow interns who had to sometimes work with and share my new found skills. This is something interns need, mentors who will give you a little bit of room to explore, but not allow you to get lost. Engineering is fun and challenging and I do hope someone learns from this. In my next article I will document a project I did post graduation.

#CivilEngineeringStories #TheCivilEngineeringStudentZW #TheCivilEngineeringStudent

What to do: Concrete works

Today I’m feeling a little bit lazy🙊 🙉, so I’m just copying and pasting the (one-sided) conversation I had when I wanted to know about where to start with concrete works. Again, this is to give a very loose guide to those who have never been in contact with concrete, (except perhaps theoretically😂).
[16/11/2017 21:06] Goddy: Haha owk let me give you a rough idea
[16/11/2017 21:06] Goddy: Concrete generally can be premix or batched on site
[16/11/2017 21:06] Goddy: Both premix and the one done onsite should be checked
[16/11/2017 21:06] Goddy: If done on site as an engineer check that the mixing ratios are done well
[16/11/2017 21:06] Goddy: If premix check ts papers wen t arrives on site to make sure its the right grade of concrete required
[16/11/2017 21:06] Goddy: then before any concrete is poured as an engineer check if all services have been installed ie electricity tubing, mechanicals, bolts or any other cast in items
[16/11/2017 21:07] Goddy: Record the area poured and take cubes for testing
[16/11/2017 21:27] Goddy: Wen at groundfloor level yu can start with steel fixing then put formwork because your reinforcement can rest on blinding or DPM or polythene paper paground but once yu are at first floor going up yu need formwork so that your reinforcement can rest on the formwork
[16/11/2017 21:29] Goddy: So at first floor it will be formwork, reinforcement then services and cast in items then pour concrete
I hope I have more energy next time😂

Your out-of-country options after school

For the forseeable future, it will be difficult to get jobs as an entry level civil engineer in Zimbabwe for many of you. While we don’t want you to run away, sitting at home for the next three years in the hope that you’ll get a job here would be a waste of time. I mean, you’ve just spent 5 years in school getting the degree. And applying your knowledge while your brain is still fresh and you’re literally bursting with energy is the best way to go.

Fortunately, civil engineering is still a critical skill in most countries. That means it’s still slightly easier to start your career elsewhere. So below are some pointers for emigrating to South Africa, Canada and Australia.

In all countries you’ll need a work permit. And the engineering council (equivalent to our Engineering Council of Zimbabwe) needs to assess your qualification according to their own standards. Some countries may require an English This is the information I have gathered with help from others who currently reside in the respective countries.

Just a word of warning before you get too hopeful. It’s not as easy as it looks, and while civil engineering is a critical skill, all these countries are getting stricter. They prefer their own nationals, or those with a significant amount of work experience.

South Africa

 

Here’s the stuff you’ll need when you submit your work permit application. You do no need a job offer before you apply. The permit is valid for a year. After you get a job the permit will be extended to 5 years and you can apply for permanent residence:

This is a guide, please refer to the SA embassy for accurate info.

1. SAQA certificate (currently R1010)

2. SAICE certificate of membership

3. ECSA membership certificate (but ECSA usually takes long so ECSA can write a letter saying you’ve begun the process and then you can use that)

4. Medical Report (less than 6 months old)

5. Radiological report (less than 6 months old)

6. Copy of ID of person who will accommodate you in SA, proof of address in their name, affidavit saying they’ll accommodate you and their bank Statement (not older than 3 months)

7. Your CV

8. Proof of employment (although I think this is not strictly required but just include it if you have it)

9. Your own bank statement with at least R3000 worth.

10. Application fee $320 (I think, I can’t remember properly but somewhere there)

11. Completed application form

12. Passport photos

13. Your passport
For these countries you will be required to take an English proficiency test. IELTS seems to be the most preferred and it can be taken at the British embassy in either Bulawayo or Harare. The fee is currently USD245. You need to book this test and study in advance. There are two options i.e. the general and the academic tests. If you intend on pursing further education in these countries it is best to take the academic test. You need to have scored at least a 6 in each category.

Find out more

Australia

 

Check this list if civil engineering is still on the critical skills list.

1. Competency Demonstration Report (CDR) assessment fees $1,085.00 (AUD)

2. Recent passport style photograph (35mm x 45mm)

3. Prime Identification Document (current passport, only page including photo and name)

4. Academic degree certificate (a letter of completion will only be accepted as a substitute before graduation and only for Australian qualifications) 5. Complete and official academic transcript (including any recognition of prior learning)

5. Curriculum Vitae/Resume

6. IELTS, TOEFL iBT® or PTE ACADEMIC™ result

7. Official Change of Name documents where applicable (e.g. gazette publication, letter/certificate issued by registry)

8. Registration certificate under the relevant licensing authority where applicable (e.g. Zimbabwe Institute of Engineers)

9. Documentary evidence of employment (for periods of 12 months or more, or if the employment provides a basis for a career episode/s)

10. List of Continuing Professional Development (CPD)

11. Three Career Episodes

12. Summary Statement for the nominated category

13. Official English language translations of above documents where applicable

Read through this book for further information

 

Canada

 

1. Language test results

2. Provincial nominations (if you have one)

3. Valid written job offers from an employer in Canada (if you have one)

4. Proof that you have enough money to support yourself and your family members in Canada, if any are coming with you (in some cases)

5. Valid passports (we don’t accept expired passports or other travel documents)

6. Educational Credential Assessment reports (if you included the results in your Express Entry profile)

7. Medical exams

8. Police certificates (if you have more than one police certificate you need to combine your documents)

9. Any other documents on the Document Checklist

Find out more about how to apply under Express Entry

 

Best of luck!! Tell me how it goes it the comments below👇😃

What to do: Residential Land development (Roads)

So obviously by the time you go for attachment, you know next to nothing about land development, unless you were fortunate enough to have had the experience somehow. And in some cases, you’ve graduated, and still no clue.
You’re the resident engineer at the proposed residential site, and you’re probably freaking out. But not to worry, it is actually not as hard as it seems. Below I am going to outline some basic steps that are taken at most of these sites, according to my experience and those of my colleagues. Please note that this varies with each site and project managers may prefer other ways of implementing the project.
Step 1. Site Office Establishment
As you will spend your time on the actual site, it is a good idea to set up a site office first. The size of the office will depend on the functions. These include site meetings with the project managers, client or potential buyers. Spare parts for the plant on site, diesel, theodolite, or other equipment may also be stored in the site office. Plans and the resident engineers reports are ideally kept there too.
Step 2. Peg Identification
Usually, unless you were part of the surveying team that did the actual pegging, this is the most tedious process. It involves days of looking for pegs that mark the boundaries of each stand. (Often, in Zim, they are simply metal rods driven into the ground and set using concrete. Stones or nearby trees are marked in white paint to help identify these pegs.) This in turn shows exactly where the roads should be. You can then use danger tape (either the red and white striped or the yellow one) and tie along the road, visible enough for a dozer driver.
Step 3. Road Clearing
Now most of the physical labour is finished, and it’s time to use your engineering brain. And I don’t literally mean proving Green’s theorem. Your people skills, managerial capabilities and technical expertise all come into play. By now you’d have made your programme of works. And it’s important that all deadlines are met. During road clearing, the dozer, excavator and general hands all work together in removing the trees, boulders and vegetation in the road. You need to be clear on what exactly each machine on your site is able to do. You cannot use an excavator to remove topsoil as this is a waste of time and fuel. Ideally,  have the excavator remove the huge boulders, the dozer follows to remove trees and topsoils.
Step 4. Roadbed formation
After removing the topsoil, the next step is to form the subgrade, or roadbed. Depending on the design, (which takes into consideration type of in-situ soil, vertical alignment,) some soil may have to be removed first. When the subgrade level has been reached, the soil is then compacted, a 93% – 95% mode AASHTO acceptable, in preparation for the base layers.
Step 5. Base construction
This is usually a continuous process of testing the layer before, dumping the calculated heaps of gravel, mixing and levelling, then compacting. Each layer may require different material depending on the design. The final layer must have passed at least 98% mode AASHTO.
Step 6. Stormwater drainage
After the final base the stormwater drains can be cut. Roads can either be a crossfall or a camber/cant. This determines whether you’ll have a single or double drain. The slopes of the drainages will be determined in the design. It is important that this part is done and checked especially carefully as you do not want water pooling during the rainy season (as is the case with Gweru roads). The culverts are also placed during this phase.
Step 7. Final cut and clearing
You’re almost done!! After the stormwater drainage is finished a final cutter (grader) smooths the road surface. General hands remove stones and other debris that may have gone onto the road or drainage. Final inspections are done and adjustments indicated on the plan.
 
Step 8. Handover!!

 

49% of males rape a woman every year

download

*Very Imp, fwd as recvd*.

Ladies pls be careful.

A woman was taken by 5 men, who according to hospital and police report was raped by a gang before being dumped at a bus station! Though she was unable to remember the events of the previous evening, tests conducted revealed that she had been raped repeatedly. There was a trace of *Rohypnol* in her blood.

*Rohypnol*, is presently being used as a rape drug. It is actually a small sterilization pill which is now being used by rapists to drug their targets at parties. The drug makes the mind of thetarget (would be victim) go blank so that she does not remember anything that transpired and worse still, the drug sterilizes the victim so that she doesn’t conceive from the rape and the rapist need not worry about having his identity revealed later by a paternity test.
The real bad news is that the drug’s side effects ARE NOT TEMPORARY, they are PERMANENT. Any female that takes it WILL NEVER BE ABLE TO CONCEIVE.

The drug is administered by dropping it into the target’s drink. The girl wouldn’t remember a thing the next morning, nothing at all that had taken place the night before will she remember. Rohypnol, dissolves rapidly and easily in drinks, leaving no taste and no change in color which makes it impossible to detect.

These weasels can get this drug from anyone who is in the vet school or any medical  university. It’s that easy and Rohypnol is about to break out big on campuses everywhere. Believe it or not, there are even sites on the internet telling people how to use it.

Girls, please be careful when you’re out, especially in a party, don’t leave your drink unattended. (Buy your own drinks, ensure bottles or cans received are unopened or sealed; don’t even taste someone else’s drink).

For guys – Please inform all your female family members, relatives and friends. 

Remember you also have sisters or might one day have a daughter(s).

Important News are meant to be passed on, please don’t keep or ignore. Please share to protect and save lives.🚫PLEASE Share If you really care for your daughter/ sister / mother / wife / girlfriend ❤ 🙏

************************************************************************************

Now please read the article again, this time taking note of the boldened words.

Someone sent me the above text this morning..I remember feeling very angry. Yes, about the men who raped the girl, but mostly about how this and many other ‘warning’ messages continue to put the burden on the girl as responsible for such disgusting behaviour from men.

“Ladies, please be careful..”

“Please inform your female friends..”

“Share if you really care for your sister/wife/daughter..”

😠😠really?

And the notion that a male needs to remember they have a sister/wife/daughter in order to behave like a decent human being?

And then there’s the absence of identifying the male as the perpetrator. As if there’s a nameless monster committing these atrocious crimes. One who can’t be identified. A case of “75% of women are raped every year”, instead of “49% of men rape women every year.

Let’s use this message instead:

*************************************************************************************

*Very Imp, fwd as recvd*.

Men, don’t be assholes.

Five men took a woman. According to hospital and police report, the men raped and dumped her at a bus station! Tests conducted revealed that the men had raped her repeatedly. There was a trace of *Rohypnol* in her blood.

Men are using *Rohypnol*, as a rape drug. It is a small sterilization pill which is now being used by men to drug their targets at parties. The man use the drug to weaken the victim, so the man can rape and abuse the target and the drug sterilizes the victim. The man does this so that the victim doesn’t conceive from the rape and the man gets away as his identity cannot be revealed later by a paternity test.
The real bad news is that men are doing this! The drug’s side effects are not temporary, they are permanent. Any man that administers the drug to the victim ensures that the victim will not be able to conceive.

The drug is administered by a man dropping it into the target’s drink. Rohypnol, dissolves rapidly and easily in drinks, leaving no taste and no change in color which makes it impossible to detect.

These weasels can get this drug from anyone who is in the vet school or any medical  university. It’s that easy and Rohypnol is about to break out big on campuses everywhere. Believe it or not, there are even sites on the internet telling men how to use it.

Men, remain human when you’re out, especially in a party. A no is a no. It’s not a maybe, it’s not a buy-me-a-drink-then-I’ll-say-yes. It’s a no.

For guys – Please inform all your male family members, relatives and friends. 

Remember you also have brothers or might one day have a son(s).

Important News are meant to be passed on, please don’t keep or ignore. Please share to protect and save lives.

🚫PLEASE Share If you really care for your son/ brother / husband / father / boyfriend ❤ 🙏

********************************************************************************

Straight into the deepend

My first job after university!!

“Say yes, then learn how to do it later,” Richard Branson said. So I did. Straight out of college I accepted becoming the resident engineer for a land developer with not enough (at least in my opinion) knowhow. And I mean both technical expertise and people management skills. From the client, the consulting engineers, my boss and subordinates, it’s a web of relationships that need careful nurturing and handling.

So how have I done it so far?

  1. Honesty-I was very frank from the beginning about what I did and didn’t know. This established trust between my boss and the consulting engineers. Together we’d brainstorm and find a way forward.
  2. Willingness to ask questions-Well…I’ve never had problems asking questions. I know the dangers of pretending to know something Fortunately, I am surrounded by people who are very patient (God bless them) and willing to share ideas.
  3. Communication-Let everyone be on the same page. Before we set out on a task, & while carrying it out, I explain what we are doing and why we are doing it. That way everyone learns and all aspects are covered.

I continue to learn everyday 😀

PS-That is me marking out areas that still needed to be cleared

 

I do not want to cook

I am young. I am female. I am black. I am African. I am Zimbabwean. And I do not want to cook. 

Or clean. Or launder. Unless there’s a washing machine. Of course I love gadgets of all sorts. 

I am 24 years old. ‘Ripe’ for marriage if we consider my shameless relatives in town. ‘Overdue’ if we consider my worried relations in the rural areas. Funny thing is I’m told, “You’ll grow out of it. Wait until you’re older. You’ll understand.”

And so I’m waiting. For the day I’ll suddenly like to cook. And clean. And wash. Maybe I’ll have a vision and become motivated to be ‘homey’. Maybe a shiver will run down my spine and electrify my nerve endings into thorough cleaning. More realistically, I’m likely going to have (and you check here  https://youtu.be/SNy6fEuPWbc )…you guessed it… a robot controlled kitchen!!😆😆

Concrete vs Tar ~ A few myths busted

 I just got out of a conference on concrete roads organized by PPC Zimbabwe (a cement manufacturing company). A very interesting session. Where a lot of the myths surrounding concrete roads were busted. Let’s get right to it:

Myth 1 – Concrete roads are more expensive than asphalt roads

False. At least in not the way we think. While the usual defence for concrete roads is that it requires low maintenance and is thus cheaper in long run (concrete roads last for 20-40 years compared to the tarred 7 years) the actual initial cost of construction has and continues to decrease. In fact the difference in costs between a concrete and asphalt road is now a few hundred dollars according to the Cement and Concrete Institute of South Africa.

Myth 2 – Concrete or tar is a black and white choice (pun intended :D)

False. The choice in determining whether or not to design a concrete road is not as easy as one might first believe. There are instances when tarred roads make more sense, for example where the design life of a road is less than 10 years. 

Myth 3 – There’s one type of concrete road

False. Believe it or not, there all of 7 types of concrete roads. And more are being developed. While all consist of a mixture of water, aggregates and cement, the differences are mainly in the reinforcement used. This has an impact on the the depth of pavement and their applications. 

Myth 4 – Concrete roads do not need reinforcement

True. But not in all cases. The reinforcement put in concrete roads is only to prevent cracking. The longer the road the more reinforcement required. 

Other advantages of concrete roads are that vehicles consume less fuel as concrete roads do not deflect under the wheels of loaded trucks. They are a greener alternative as asphalt produces highly polluting gases when melting. In addition, concrete can be made from local materials. And unless we find some oil reserves to get petroleum, (please let one be in my backyard😣), we must seriously consider making concrete the preferred choice.

Chicken or Egg; The case of Academia and Industry

Never before have I heard so much talk about the large differences between what occurs in industry and what we are taught in school. 

Having spent 18 years in the education system (not counting preschool), I felt excited about finally getting into the ‘world’. Applying all that I’ve learnt from the first grade, throughout high school and culminating into my final year at college. You can imagine the immense disappointment when not a single company in the country offers internships and graduate traineeships. Or when entry level means at least two years experience in the field. (Even a lectureship position requires another 2-3 years doing a masters program. )

It seemed to me like I was being cheated. Everytime I finish, there is always another step to take, another course to finish, another year of work experience. I decided to try to find out why companies won’t take up recent graduates. And these are some of the reasons I gathered:

1. They (the graduates) have no idea what happens in the field.

 I told an uncle of mine at a family funeral that I had just finished my degree in Civil Engineering. He nodded pityingly, turned to the person next to him and said, ‘ I do not employ graduates at my company. They have no idea what happens at work.’  Well of course! We have just finished at least 18 years of school! And this system is packed in such a way that unless you have an aunt who owns a consultancy or construction company, you will have no exposure to what actually happens. Of course, in this age of technology, ignorance is a choice. But I am yet to be convinced of anything that beats hands-on experience.

2. They think they know it all

I had a supervisor during my attachment year, who from the very first time we met we got off of the wrong foot. As per our chairperson’s instructions, our industrial supervisor had to be an engineer. Upon inquiring whether or not there was an engineer at the company, I was told there wasn’t. I hesitated giving him my forms, choosing to confirm with my chairperson whether or not I should actually work at the organisation. I felt he was insulted at this. (We learnt later that he had a diploma in civil engineering.) So from then, anytime he asked even the most mundane question, he would rave about how we boast of out ‘degreeship’ and not know a thing. (I remember the time we had a two hour lecture because we didn’t know the size of a brick.) Another thing I’d constantly hear from my classmates; ‘I don’t want a first class degree. The bosses become intimidated and would rather choose someone with a 2.2’. I do not know how far true this is as the adverts I see are actually written those with a 2.1 or better. (It could have been my classmates consoling themselves on an inability to get better grades.) But if true, since when do we start rewarding mediocrity and punish excellence? My opinion is that any supervisor has the task of leading his subordinates. If you feel threatened, you probably shouldn’t be a supervisor. 

But even in the perfect world where you could easily get an internship or job after university, again there is that disparity between whats in school and what it used at work. In fact the first thing told on starting your job is forget all you’ve learnt at school, now you start learning.

  Either there’s somethings being done wrong in the workplaces, or we’re being taught redundant stuff.